Monday, August 30, 2021

Weekend Ag News Round-up - Aug 28

 LENRD board members reaffirm their commitment to locally led conservation

At their August board meeting, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) board of directors approved a resolution reaffirming their commitment to the management of our natural resources for the future and the importance of local control.

Recent water quality data indicates elevated concentrations of nitrate in portions of the LENRD, reaching levels that could pose health threats to humans and the environment.  It’s during these times when the LENRD board members are put in tough situations.  Mike Sousek, LENRD general manager, said, “This resolution simply reaffirms to the public that we care about the quality or our water and the health of our communities.”

The board also discussed the Scrap Tire Partnership Program with the Loess Hills RC&D and the Papio-Missouri River NRD.  The board instructed the staff to submit a letter of commitment for the program through the Nebraska Environmental Trust.  If awarded, the grant could provide funding for collections for 3 consecutive years.

Staff presented changes to the conservation cost-share docket and the board approved the updates for fiscal year 2022.  Changes to the Community Forestry Program and the Forestry Incentive for Public Facilities Program were also presented.  These updates will simplify the administration of the programs as well as create more flexibility for the participants.

An update was given on the Willow Creek Artesian Pressure Mitigation Project.  The production wells will be installed this fall.  This is the first step in the process of reducing the artesian pressures near the dam.  The board approved the bid with Dietz Well for $95,510 to complete the project.

A presentation was given by JEO and Long Spring Consulting Group’s on the LENRD’s hydrogeologic groundwater model along with the graphic user interface (GUI) which will be the cloud-based tool used by district staff to evaluate proposed uses of groundwater.  Phase 2B of the project is nearing completion and project partners are reviewing the model calibrations.  This phase of the project was facilitated by a grant from the NeDNR Water Sustainability Fund which paid for 60% of the project.  When completed, the groundwater model will allow the district to complete simulations that will help to illustrate the changes to groundwater and surface water systems.  The model also will benefit the district by allowing for the ability to utilize a sophisticated hydrogeologic grid constructed on tight gridlines and integrates the aerial electromagnetic flight data, which is a first of its kind in the United States.  The board reviewed the proposed contract for the GUI web-based program with Long Spring and voted to accept the terms of the agreement.

The board approved a proposal with Hollman Media to improve and update the district’s database.  This will help to improve the system and make it more user-friendly for the staff and the producers.  It will also be a more secure solution for the district’s records.

The board also approved an additional 1% increase in restricted funds authority for fiscal year 2022 and set the budget hearing Thursday, September 9th at 7:00 p.m. at the LENRD office in Norfolk.

To learn more about the 12 responsibilities of Nebraska’s NRDs and how your local district can work with you and your community to protect your natural resources, visit and sign up for our monthly emails.  The next board of directors meeting will be Thursday, September 23rd at the LENRD office in Norfolk at 7:30 p.m. and on Facebook Live.

UNL webinar planned on winter cow care agreements

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln’s Center for Agricultural Profitability will host a webinar that examines the development of winter cow care agreements at noon on Sept. 2.  

Given the current drought conditions in the western and north-central U.S., there has been increased interest by cattle producers to send cows to other locations, such as Nebraska, where winter feed resources like corn residue are available for grazing. This creates a scenario where many people are asking questions about what a fair agreement for wintering cows looks like. The goal of a good agreement is that there are no surprises, all parties are clear on expectations and roles.

The webinar will offer a roundtable discussion with Nebraska Extension experts to help producers avoid disagreements. Participants will be Dave Aiken, an agricultural law and water specialist; Aaron Berger, a beef systems educator; and Mary Drewnoski, a beef systems specialist. It will be moderated by Jessica Groskopf, an agricultural economics educator.

The webinar is presented as part of the Center for Agricultural Profitability’s weekly webinar series, held every Thursday at noon.

For more information, and to register for the webinar, visit the Center for Agricultural Profitability’s website,

Fall Armyworms Damaging Alfalfa in Southeast Nebraska

Robert Wright - NE Extension Entomologist
Melissa Bartels - NE Extension Educator

We had two reports of fall armyworms damaging alfalfa in Gage and Otoe counties last week. Fall armyworms have been abundant in states to the south of us recently, including Kansas and Missouri.

In both cases, the armyworms were in their last stage, and a decision was made to treat one of these fields and harvest the other. Caterpillars do most of their feeding in the last stage. If you are not watching fields on a regular basis, you may not notice damage or armyworms until they are large and doing significant damage.

Kansas State University Extension Entomologists state: “One to two worms per square foot can destroy seedling alfalfa, and populations of 10 to 15 per square foot have been observed to destroy 12- to 14-inch alfalfa. Treatment is not advised unless the majority of larvae are less than 3/4 inch long.” Insecticide options they list include products with active ingredients including the pyrethroids, Alpha-cypermethrin, Beta-cyfluthrin, cyfluthrin, Gamma-cyhalothrin, Lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin and Zeta-cypermethrin, organophosphates, chloropyrifos, and carbamates, carbaryl and methomyl.

See Nebraska Extension Circular 130 for a listing of products and rates. Large caterpillars (3/4 inch long or more) are close to maturity, may have already done most of their feeding and are harder to control with insecticides. Another control option would be to harvest the alfalfa if the crop growth stage is appropriate.

Fall armyworms, Spodoptera frugiperda, are a southern species that does not overwinter in Nebraska. As populations build up during the summer, moths fly north often reaching the Midwest later in the summer or early fall — hence their common name.

A related species, the yellow-striped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli, has been seen in south-central soybeans the last few weeks in low numbers. They can also feed on alfalfa. These larvae look very similar and can be confused. A key character to differentiate these two species is that the fall armyworm has four spots on the top of the last abdominal segment forming a square. The yellow-striped armyworm lacks these spots. There can be a great deal of color variation in both species.

Given the populations of fall armyworms to the south of us, it is likely moths will continue to be present in southern Nebraska for a while. Fall armyworms have a broad host range and can feed on broadleaf and grassy crops. Be sure to get out and monitor newly seeded alfalfa and wheat as seedling plants can be killed rapidly by caterpillars feeding on them.

Extension to ‘Cultivate Opportunities’ for Attendees at 2021 Husker Harvest Days

Ron Seymour - Extension Educator

The University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources (IANR) along with Nebraska Extension will be providing an education program to provide Knowledge That Helps Cultivate Opportunities in a number of agricultural topics at the 2021 Husker Harvest Days (HHD) farm show, scheduled for Tuesday through Thursday, Sept. 14-16. The program will be housed in the UNL “Big Red Building” located at lot 827. An agriculture careers program will be located in a large white tent immediately east of the building.

Teams of Nebraska Extension educators and specialists will be sharing their field-proven experiences with new research-based, unbiased information. The wide variety of topics should provide a wealth of information that could lead to more success and wellbeing in the lives of visitors to the UNL Big Red Building.

Topics include:

Agriculture Economics
Farm and ranch economic and financial decisions are important but can be hard to make. Faculty from the UNL Agriculture Economics Center for Agricultural Profitability will provide information to help make good management decisions.

Beef Production
Nebraska has the second-largest number of cattle on feed in the United States, thus is one of the most important agriculture industries in the state. The Beef Systems Team will provide information to help producers manage feed costs and maintain animal performance. This information will help the cattle producer continue to provide a quality animal for the consumer and help maintain a healthy income.

Manure Management
When farmers raise livestock, they will always produce manure. Members of the UNL Animal Manure Management Team will emphasis that using livestock manure to fertilize cropland is nature’s original recycling program, and recycling locally available manure nutrients before importing inorganic fertilizer is the key to protecting the environment. Their goal is to provide farmers with resources and tools to make the most of manure that they may have available.

Cover Crop Production
The use of cover crops has increase significantly in the last several years. Just like the use of manure on crop fields, planting cover crops will increase soil organic matter and improve the ability of the soil to grow a crop. The Cover Crop Team will demonstrate how the small effort made to plant a cover crop will result in a large payback both financially and in land quality improvement.

Water Quality and Quantity Issues
Increasing soil organic matter, boosting water infiltration and reducing loss of soil nitrogen are important issues in protecting the quality of both surface and aquifer held water. The Water Issues Team will provide information on how best to manage soil water and apply irrigation to increase crop production while conserving our natural resources. Participating farmers will better understand the economics of using the practices and learn how to maintain a high quality and plentiful water supply that will reduce some of the uncertainty they face in crop production.

Digital Agriculture and On-farm Research
There have been significant improvements in the equipment that farmers use to produce their crops, including the ability to record yield data. The Digital Agriculture and On-Farm Research Team will highlight how farmers can use this data to guide them on future management decisions. Farmers will learn that on-farm research is not difficult to conduct and the results will help them increase the productivity of their land, resulting in increased profitability.

Crop Pest Management
Pests change in their occurrence and response to control tactics, thus are a continual challenge to manage. The Pest Management Team will highlight the results of research on pesticide products and alternative approaches to pest control. They will also review issues of managing pesticide resistance and how to deal with new and emerging pest problems. This information will give people a better understanding of the pests they find in and around their fields and homes, and how to manage them.

Tree Culture
Nebraskans place a high value on trees. Trees bring a significant value to farms and landscapes by blocking the wind, reducing soil erosion and providing habitat for wildlife. Sometimes it can be a challenge to maintain trees in a grassland state such as Nebraska. Thus, the Community Environment Team will be providing information that will help farmers and home residents select the right trees for their situation and maintain their health.

Farm Family Wellbeing
Maintaining a healthy wellbeing is also very important for humans. Stress can happen to all people and it is important to understand that normal to feel overwhelmed, particularly during tough times. The Healthy Lifestyles and Wellness Team will be providing information to help people learn to maintain their wellbeing and be able to recognize when family and friends may need assistance. Learning these skills will help keep families and communities together.

Agricultural Leadership
Communities need people to provide leadership to continue to prosper. The administrator of the Nebraska LEAD program will be sharing information about how they can help develop the skills people need to help lead rural communities. LEAD program participants become exposed to diverse societal and business thinking, develop a respect for agriculture’s history and heritage and learn to investigate and listen to all sides of an issue. The skills learned help participants to maintain the “good life” in their communities.

Agricultural Careers
Young people also need training to be able to establish a career and contribute to their communities. The UNL exhibit will feature an Agriculture Careers Zone adjacent to the “Big Red Building”. The Career Zone Team includes representatives from the Nebraska 4-H College and Careers Readiness Team, the UNL College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Admissions office and the Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture Admissions office. The representatives will provide information on agricultural careers, preparation for post high school training and career success markers. This information will help youth develop career paths that can bring them back to live and help our rural communities thrive.

In addition to all of the program information that is being provided, IANR faculty will be available to answer crop and animal production questions. They will also be available to look at plant and insect samples the visitors might bring along. We all look forward to seeing and visiting with all HHD participants.


Non-irrigated cropland cash rent averaged $233.00 per acre in Iowa during 2021, an increase of $3.00 from 2020 according to the latest report released by USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service.  Pasture rented for cash averaged $58.00 per acre, up $4.00 from 2020.

Grundy County had the highest cash rent for non-irrigated cropland, at $276.00 per acre, followed by Butler County at $264.00 per acre. Cedar, Scott, and Ida rounded out the top five. Lucas County, at $148.00 per acre, had the lowest average cash rent for non-irrigated cropland.

Other Iowa Counties of Interest

($/acre - change from '20)

Plymouth - 257 +2
Woodbury - 248 -8
Manona - 225 +3
Harrison - 224 +11
Pottawattamie - 233 +14
Crawford - 250+4
Shelby - 225-5

Pottawattamie and Sioux Counties tied for the highest published pasture cash rent, at $88.00 per acre, followed by Plymouth at $75.50 per acre. Appanoose County had the lowest pasture cash rent, at $31.50 per acre.

U.S. Agricultural Exports in Fiscal Year 2022 Forecast Up $4.0 Billion to a Record $177.5 Billion; Imports at $159.5 Billion

U.S. agricultural exports in fiscal year (FY) 2022 are projected at $177.5 billion, $4.0 billion higher than the revised forecast for the preceding year. The FY 2021 export forecast of $173.5 billion represents an increase of $9.5 billion from May’s projection, mainly due to higher livestock, poultry, and dairy exports, as well as the adoption of a new definition of “Agricultural Products.” Beginning with this publication, the August 2021 release, the report is adopting the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) definition of “Agricultural Products,” which adds ethanol, distilled spirits, and manufactured tobacco products, among others, while removing rubber and allied products from the previous USDA definition. The net effect of the definitional change on historical values is that U.S. agricultural exports under the new definition averaged $4.7 billion higher per year during FY 2018–2020 from the previous definition, and U.S. agricultural imports averaged $9.9 billion higher annually during the same period. For details on the transition to the new definition, please see Appendix A: Updated Agricultural Products Definition. 2 Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade, AES-117, August 26, 2021 USDA, Economic Research Service and Foreign Agricultural Service

The FY 2022 forecast value increase is primarily driven by higher export values for soybeans, cotton, and horticultural products. Soybean exports are projected to increase by $3.3 billion from FY 2021 to a record $32.3 billion on higher prices, which more than offset lower projected volumes. Cotton exports are forecast up $500 million to $6.8 billion on higher unit values. Horticultural product exports are forecast up $600 million to a record $37.7 billion, led by higher exports of tree nuts. Livestock, poultry, and dairy exports are forecast up $400 million to $36.8 billion in FY 2022, primarily due to growth in dairy and poultry products. Grain and feed exports are forecast down $1.1 billion from prior forecast levels, primarily due to lower corn export prospects. Agricultural exports to China are forecast at $39.0 billion—an increase of $2.0 billion from FY 2021—largely due to higher expected soybean prices and strong cotton and sorghum demand. Agricultural exports to Canada and Mexico are forecast at $23.8 billion and $22.3 billion, respectively.

U.S. agricultural imports in FY 2022 are forecast at $159.5 billion, $2.0 billion higher than the revised FY 2021 due to higher imports of livestock and beef products, oilseeds and products, and horticulture products. FY 2021 imports are forecast at $157.5 billion, up $15.7 billion from the previous forecast, primarily resulting from the inclusion of distilled spirits and other products in the new “Agricultural Products” definition. Record-level import values in the third quarter of FY 2021 largely due to pent-up demand from the pandemic shutdowns of entertainment and service industries, which was released driving up purchases and prices of wine, beer, fruits and vegetables, and other horticultural products, at least in the short term.

Effective January 1, 2021, the separation of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union-27 (EU27) was complete, including trade between both entities. Starting with this August 2021 release, the Outlook for U.S. Agricultural Trade is reporting on EU27 and the UK separately, rather than a joint EU27+UK in previous quarters.

The forecasts in this report are based on policies in effect at the time of the August 12, 2021, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) release and the U.S. production forecasts thereof.

Statement from Secretary Vilsack on USDA Quarterly Trade Forecast

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s quarterly trade forecast released yesterday shows that U.S. agricultural exports not only continue at a record-setting pace for fiscal year 2021, but that they will eclipse the 2021 total in fiscal year 2022. The August forecast is USDA’s first look at expected exports for FY 2022.

“As we work to build back better, exports remain a vital engine spurring growth in the U.S. economy. America’s farmers, ranchers and processors are the world’s best and global demand for their products is a testament to their quality, safety and commitment to sustainability and has led to a projected new record in U.S. agricultural exports,” said Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack.

The FY 2021 forecast of $173.5 billion is $33.8 billion, or 24 percent, higher than the FY 2020 final total and nearly $17 billion above the previous record set in FY 2014. Factors underpinning the increase include record volume and value of corn exports, record volume of soybean exports, strong demand from China, and reduced foreign competition.

Looking ahead to FY 2022, U.S. farm and food exports are projected at a record $177.5 billion, topping 2021’s forecasted level by $4 billion. This increase is primarily driven by expected record exports of soybeans, horticultural products, dairy products and sorghum. Exports to China are forecast at a record $39 billion due to higher soybean prices and strong demand for sorghum and cotton. China is expected to remain the United States’ largest export market, followed by Canada and Mexico.

“Simply put, agricultural trade is all about opportunities – for our agricultural producers, our rural communities and the American economy as a whole, as well as for the global customers who value quality, cost-competitive U.S. farm and food products,” Vilsack said. “Each $1 billion in U.S. agricultural exports stimulates another $1.14 billion in domestic economic activity and supports more than 7,700 full-time civilian jobs throughout the U.S. economy. That means that more than 1.3 million jobs, not just on the farm but in related industries such as food processing and transportation.”

NOTE: Beginning with this forecast, USDA is adopting the World Trade Organization’s definition of “Agricultural Products,” which adds ethanol, distilled spirits and manufactured tobacco products, among others, while removing rubber and allied products from the previous USDA definition. All numbers above have been adjusted to reflect the new definition.

USDA Announces Foreign Animal Disease Protection Zone

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced they are preparing to establish a foreign animal disease protection zone in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. African swine fever (ASF) has not been detected in these countries, but out of an abundance of caution, APHIS is taking this step to further safeguard the U.S. swine herd and protect the interests of pork producers.
“Prevention efforts are already in place in Puerto Rico, but formal designation from the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) allows USDA to seek zone recognition from trading partners prior to an outbreak, so the U.S. may continue to export pork if ASF is detected in Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands,” says Dr. Patrick Webb, Acting Chief Veterinarian for the National Pork Board (NPB) in a statement. “The NPB is making Checkoff-funded resources available in Spanish for USDA to leverage for its outreach in Puerto Rico.”

Second ASF Vaccine Candidate Developed  

Researchers from the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service have developed a second experimental vaccine candidate that could offer protection against ASF. According to Lisa Becton, Swine Health Director for NPB, the identification of a new candidate is promising. However, it will take time and additional research before a commercial ASF vaccine is available in the U.S.
NPB uses Checkoff funds to address gaps in vaccine knowledge and actively collaborates with other organizations to maximize efforts for ASF prevention and preparedness.

USDA to send 2021 Hemp Acreage and Production survey this fall

This October, USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service will mail its first Hemp Acreage and Production Survey. The survey will collect information on the total planted and harvested area, yield, production, and value of hemp in the United States.

The Domestic Hemp Production Program established in the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (2018 Farm Bill) allows for the cultivation of hemp under certain conditions. The Hemp Acreage and Production survey will provide needed data about the hemp industry to assist producers, regulatory agencies, state governments, processors, and other key industry entities.

Producers will be able to complete the survey online or they may complete and return the survey by mail using the return envelope that will be provided.

It’s Here: Farm Progress Show 2021 Kicks Off Next Week

Farmers, exhibitors and show presenters alike are ready to mix, mingle, and check out the latest in farm technology when the Farm Progress Show reconvenes in Decatur, Ill., next week.

With hundreds of exhibitors, this year’s show will give farmers the opportunity to engage with the latest in ag products, equipment and ideas, as well as the people who design and develop them. It’s been two years since the last in-person Farm Progress Show – which means there’s a lot to get caught up on.                        

Here are SIX must-sees for FPS21:

Ag Tech Innovations: At the 2021 Farm Progress Show there will be hundreds of new product innovations on display. From the hardware of new equipment to the software of new crop protection, there will be 2-years of product development for you to experience first-hand.

Corn Harvesting Demos: Each day, equipment manufacturers will showcase the latest in harvest technology. Combines, headers and grain carts will all be on display and showing off in the Show Demo Fields. The demonstrations will start each day at 11 a.m. and last until the day’s acres are worked.

Concert from Country Music Star Lee Brice, presented by Case IH and co-sponsored by Farm Progress: On Wednesday, Sept. 1 at 5:30 p.m., Brice will hold a concert and debut his new song, “Farmer,” for show attendees, exhibitors and sponsors. General admission tickets to the Farm Progress Show for that day will include entry to the concert.

A Live Barn Raising: Throughout FPS21, FBi Buildings will be showcasing the innovative Qlyft system by raising and lowering a pole barn. The Qlyft system uses hydraulic cylinders, I-beams, scissor-lift technology, and safety nets to allow the crew to assemble a complete roof, build and attach wall frames, and set the building in place – all in about 15 minutes.

Autonomous Showcase: Each day from 10 a.m.-3 p.m., Raven will display the OMNiDRIVE™, which allows for the automated pulling of the grain cart to unload the combine on the go. There will also be a showcase of the OMNiPOWER™, a self-propelled power platform designed to easily interchange farm implements such as a sprayer or spreader to operate in the field, driver-free.

ADM Stage: Each day on the ADM Stage, attendees can catch must-see seminars, speakers and visits from special guests. This year’s events include a Farm Futures market update, a live taping of The Noon Show and a discussion from Ag Safety Day on ATV and tractor safety.

Don’t miss hearing directly from high-level elected officials during “The Noon Show” on Tuesday and Wednesday on the ADM Stage. Also on Tuesday, from 2:00-3:00 there will be a special session where governmental representatives will deliver insight from the House Ag Committee, Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management.

And don’t forget the daily demonstrations:
    Steve Lanvit Horse Training
    North America Diving Dogs
    Ride ‘n’ Drive opportunities
    And much more!

Check out the detailed show schedule for info on specific times.

In-person farm shows are back – and Farm Progress Show 2021 is the perfect place to start.


Delegates to the U.S. Swine Health Improvement Plan (USSHIP) initiative, a pilot project to develop and implement an African swine fever (ASF)-Classical swine fever (CSF) monitored certification program, met this week to discuss developing program standards. They approved resolutions related to animal traceability, risks of disease transmission through feed, biosecurity and sanitizing standards for pork industry infrastructure, such as trucks, trailers and facilities.

USSHIP, which is funded by USDA’s Veterinary Services, is directed by swine veterinarians from Iowa State University, South Dakota State University, the University of Illinois and the University of Minnesota. Its goal is to safeguard, certify and improve the health of the U.S. swine herd and enhance the longer-term competitiveness and sustainability of the U.S. pork industry.

Young Cattle Producers Needed for 2022 Convention Internships

The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) is offering college students a unique behind-the-scenes experience through its annual convention internship program. The 2022 Cattle Industry Convention and NCBA Trade Show, the largest annual meeting of the U.S. beef cattle industry, will take place Feb. 1-3, 2022, in Houston.

Up to 18 interns will be selected and will be responsible for setting up the indoor arena, assisting at committee meetings and Cattlemen’s College, posting on social media and contributing in the NCBA booth. NCBA will strive to provide students time to maximize industry networking.

Student interns must be able to work Jan. 29-Feb. 5, 2022, provide their own transportation to Houston, and be at least a junior-level college student at an accredited university at the time of the event. Applicants must have a minimum 3.0 GPA, should be well-versed in all areas of social media and preferably have a background in, or working knowledge of, the cattle and/or beef industry.

This one-of-a-kind opportunity offers college students the ability to network with industry stakeholders throughout the beef industry and gain valuable experience. Students will also receive a one-year NCBA student membership.

Interested students must complete an online Student Internship Application and submit college transcripts, two letters of recommendation and a resume. The application deadline is Oct. 16, 2021. For more information, contact Grace Webb at

Coglio awarded USDA grant to develop tool to estimate insect pathogen risk

Caterina Scoglio, professor in the Mike Wiegers Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Kansas State University, has received a U.S. Department of Agriculture — Research Education and Economics grant to develop a computer tool used to estimate the risk for arthropod-transmitted pathogens.

Scoglio, who holds the Paslay professorship in electrical and computer engineering and is a Steve Hsu Keystone research scholar, will lead the more than $275,000 four-year project, conducting research on "Predicting Insect Contact and Transmission Using Historical Epidemiological Data."

Researchers will collect data, develop algorithms and design a computer tool that provides predictive models that estimate arthropod-borne pathogen transmission risk in locations using environmental and dynamic real-time data, all with the goal of optimizing resources.

"Estimating pathogen transmission risk will reduce waste of limited shelf-life products and the movement of resources between locations," Scoglio said. "Planners will use this tool to evaluate mosquito-borne virus risk of a geographic location at specific times or durations of time. Users can also monitor conditions at specific locations to decide when and which products to reorder."

The platform will classify landscapes into three levels of transmission current risk — high, medium and low — and will feature a forecasting tool.

This project is closely related to major research goals in the Carl R. Ice College of Engineering for the areas of infectious diseases and health.

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