Thursday, July 16, 2015

Thursday July 16 Ag News

Rural Mainstreet economy improves for July:  More than half of bank CEOs expect higher loan defaults

The Creighton University Rural Mainstreet Index rose above growth neutral for July from June’s tepid reading, according to the monthly survey of bank CEOs in rural areas of a 10-state region dependent on agriculture and/or energy.  

Overall: The July Rural Mainstreet Index (RMI), which ranges between 0 and 100, climbed to 53.4, up from June’s growth neutral 50.0, and its highest level since June of last year.

“This is the fourth straight month the index has risen, indicating an upturn in economic conditions for the region. Improving crop prices pushed the overall index and the economic outlook higher for the month," said Ernie Goss, Jack A. MacAllister Chair in Regional Economics at Creighton University's Heider College of Business.

Farming and ranching: The farmland and ranchland price index for July increased slightly to 31.4 from June’s 31.1. “This is the 20th straight month the index has moved below growth neutral. But, as in previous months, there is a great deal of variation across the region in the direction and magnitude of farmland prices,” said Goss.

This month bankers were asked how much farmland prices had changed in their area over the last year. On average, bank CEOs reported prices had fallen by 6.8 percent over the past 12 months. Seven percent indicated that farmland prices in their area had expanded over the year.

“Approximately 14 percent registered a decline of 1 to 4 percent, 34.9 percent reported a price reduction of 5 to 9 percent and 27.9 indicated farmland prices had decreased by 10 to 20 percent.  The remaining 16.3 percent reported no change in farmland prices over the previous 12 months,” said Goss.

The July farm equipment-sales index rose to a very weak 17.9 from June’s record low 12.5. The index has been below growth neutral for 24 straight months. “With farm income expected to decline for a second straight year, farmers remain very cautious regarding the purchase of agricultural equipment,” said Goss.

Nebraska: The Nebraska RMI for July climbed to 50.1 from 48.8 in June. The state’s farmland-price index fell to 21.4 from June’s 29.5. Nebraska’s new-hiring index dipped to 56.4 from 56.6 in June. According to Jeffrey Gerhart, president and chairman of the Bank of Newman Grove, “Rainfall has been pretty good in northeast Nebraska, but pivots are being turned on.”

Iowa: The July RMI for Iowa advanced to 56.6 from June’s 51.8. Iowa’s farmland-price index for July slumped to 43.9 from June’s 44.3. Iowa’s new-hiring index for July jumped to 65.4 from 62.6 in June.

Each month, community bank presidents and CEOs in nonurban, agriculturally and energy-dependent portions of a 10-state area are surveyed regarding current economic conditions in their communities and their projected economic outlooks six months down the road. Bankers from Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming are included. The survey is supported by a grant from Security State Bank in Ansley, Neb.

This survey represents an early snapshot of the economy of rural, agriculturally and energy-dependent portions of the nation. The Rural Mainstreet Index (RMI) is a unique index covering 10 regional states, focusing on approximately 200 rural communities with an average population of 1,300. It gives the most current real-time analysis of the rural economy. Goss and Bill McQuillan, former chairman of the Independent Community Banks of America, created the monthly economic survey in 2005.

Aug. 4 deadline for 10th Feeding Quality Forum

As cattle feeders aim to make the most of premiums for quality, align with market expectations and make ready for industry changes in the wind, they can find insight and answers at an annual forum at two locations on the Great Plains.

The 10th annual Feeding Quality Forum is set for the Omaha suburb of La Vista, Neb., on August 18 and in Garden City, Kan., on August 20.

For a decade, producers, feeders and allied industry have joined together annually for an education reunion to reap expert industry insight. This year’s topics include the perennial favorite market outlook from AgResource Company, tips to combat heat stress, advice on how to adopt current nutrition strategies and a peer panel on risk management.

“The panel discussion has grown into one of our most popular segments,” says Jill Dunkel, event organizer and editor of cosponsor Feedlot magazine. “This year’s topic is managing risk – cattle are a tremendous investment, and offering fellow cattlemen the opportunity to see how others are managing risk will no doubt be a great conversation.”

Attendance is by advance reservation until all seats are taken, and remains at the same $50 level as in years past for all registrations by August 4. As space allows, late reservations will be accepted at $75.

“We gather input and topics from our sponsors who represent different industry segments, but also past participants and those engaged in the feeding business,” says Mark McCully, Certified Angus Beef LLC (CAB) vice president. “We want to provide a forum for discussing those most relevant issues that managers are facing in their day-to-day business operations.”

Each year, the forum informs and opens discussion that help attendees plan for shifting industry trends and consumer demand. Peer discussions and networking allow producers and feeders to learn from each other as well as industry and university experts.

McCully says, “The feeding business is changing at a rapid pace, and staying on top of all the moving pieces can be challenging for a manager without this kind of event.”

Sign-in begins at 9:30 a.m., followed by a quick welcome at 10:00 before informational sessions kick off with Dan Basse, AgResource Company president (Garden City) or AgResource Head Researcher Bill Tierney (Omaha), as they provide the local and global feedstuffs market and economic outlook.

Then Marilyn Corbin of Zoetis will talk about details, implications and how to prepare for the Veterinary Feed Directive. Lunch will honor FQF 2015 Industry Achievement Award winner James Herring, of Friona Industries, Amarillo, Texas.

Following lunch, University of Nebraska feedlot experts will take the floor. Terry Mader will highlight the details of heat stress management, followed by Galen Erickson’s discussion of trending nutrition topics. The forum will conclude around 4:15 p.m., after a panel discussion on risk management in the feedyard.

The Forum is hosted in conjunction with Zoetis, Roto-Mix, Purina Mills, Micronutrients, Feedlot magazine and CAB.

To register, visit, or contact Marilyn Conley by phone at 800-225-2333 or email

Federal Crop Insurance Gets Failing Grade

On June 3, 2015, the Center for Rural Affairs launched their Crop Insurance Reform Initiative ( to address long-standing concerns about federal farm programs and crop insurance subsidies. According to Traci Bruckner, Senior Policy Analyst at the Center for Rural Affairs, evaluating the current state of and functionality of federally subsidized crop insurance programs has been a first-order priority since the very beginning.

“We’ve heard from farmers across the Midwest and Great Plains about the negative impacts of federally subsidized crop insurance for over a decade,” said Bruckner. “A farm safety net is important to help family farmers mitigate risks, but there are real concerns with the current crop insurance program. The best way to begin addressing those concerns is through honest and forthright assessment of the crop insurance system.”

“This report card is our earnest effort to get that assessment started,” added Bruckner. “And this is just the beginning, we will have more analysis, and more recommendations for reform coming out in the coming weeks and months.”

The report card evaluates six categories of performance: reliability, transparency, support it gives to beginning farmers, emphasis on crop diversity, efficient use of taxes, and conservation of soil and water. Along with the report card, the Center for Rural Affairs is also releasing a policy brief, which more fully explains each letter grade provided in the report card.

To view or download the Crop Insurance Report Card and Policy Brief go to:

“By displaying this assessment of crop insurance in a format that everyone is familiar with, we hope to simplify a set of complicated issues and attract the general public to join us in pushing for reforms,” Bruckner explained.

Bruckner also pointed out that while most of the grades we awarded are not what parents would hope to see on their own child’s school report, grades did range from a B to several grades of F. And the accompanying Policy Brief offers further analysis and what reforms could be enacted to improve the performance of the crop insurance system. In overall performance, crop insurance received a failing grade. 

“A student who fails overall is usually not allowed to progress to the next grade,” offered Bruckner. “We want to stress that the crop insurance system needs some serious reforms before we can honestly say this is a real safety net that deserves to advance, as is, in the next farm bill debate. The impact crop insurance will have on future years of farming practices is significant, making reform of the federally subsidized crop insurance system vitally important to the future of rural and small town America.”

“Subsidizing the nation’s largest and wealthiest farms on every acre, every year, regardless of crop prices, production or farm profitability, puts America’s natural resources at risk,” concluded Bruckner. “And, absent reform, crop insurance gives mega-farms an advantage in bidding up land costs, driving their smaller neighbors out of business, and preventing the next generation of farmers from ever getting started.”

Iowa Corn 300 Powered by Ethanol in Newton July 18

The Iowa Corn 300 will race into the Iowa Speedway this weekend, July 18. This will be the 9th year that Iowa Corn has sponsored this event. The race is designed to share the benefits of the renewable fuel industry. The Iowa Corn Growers Association and the Iowa Corn Promotion Board are happy to once again be able to showcase the value of this homegrown, renewable fuel.

"The Iowa Corn 300 continues to be an excellent platform for promoting the benefits of higher blends of ethanol. We encourage all attendees to learn more about the industry and fill up with ethanol on their trip to the race. We are pleased to be able to continue to sponsor such an event and share the benefits of the renewable fuel industry will all race fans," says Iowa Corn Promotion Board President Chris Edgington.

This year, the support of the Iowa Corn 300 is crucial to the ethanol industry because of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed cuts to the amount of ethanol available to Americans. "Iowa Corn urges all Iowan's to help keep our choices at the pump and stand up to the EPA. Please take the time to fill out a comment card or go to to support rural America and corn growers from all around Iowa, "said Jerry Mohr, President of the Iowa Corn Growers Association. Comments are due to the EPA by the July 27 deadline.

If you have questions, please log on to for the race day schedule, more information on ethanol, and how to submit comments to the EPA.

Cattle Producers Gather in Denver to Establish Direction for Industry

More than 600 cattle producers are gathered for the Cattle Industry Summer Conference in Denver this week to help set direction for industry programs. The event includes meetings of the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, Cattlemen’s Beef Board, American National CattleWomen and National Cattlemen’s Foundation. Among the purposes of the yearly conference is to create a framework for checkoff and policy efforts on behalf of U.S. cattle producers for 2016. The conference kicked off today and will conclude with the board meetings on July 18.

“This has been a great year for cattlemen and women, and the optimism for our industry shows at this meeting,” said NCBA President Philip Ellis. “With great prices and moisture across much of cattle country, spirits are high.”

A Checkoff Program update started the meeting this morning, providing those attending for CBB or NCBA Federation an overview of programs being conducted to increase consumer demand for beef. The Conference’s opening general session gave attendees a glimpse of the industry’s proposed Long Range Plan 2016-2020 and included an industry overview from CattleFax.

Rollout of the Long Range Plan will be discussed in a meeting open to all conference participants from 4-5 p.m. Friday afternoon.

“Through the industry’s Long Range Plan, we will aim to grow beef demand and continue to build on consumer trust in beef,” said Ellis. “These core strategies developed for the beef industry gives us a platform for growth for the next four years.”

Checkoff committees and subcommittees representing Convenience, Freedom to Operate, Global Growth, Beef’s Image, Market Research, Taste, Value and Nutrition and Health will begin this afternoon, and continue their discussions through Friday morning. At the same time, NCBA Policy committees, representing Agricultural and Food Policy; Tax and Credit; Cattle Health and Well-Being; Federal Lands; Cattle Marketing and International Trade; Property Rights and Environmental Management will be meeting.

“This is the meeting where the work of the association is done by our producer leaders and state affiliates to set the policy path for the year ahead,” said Ellis. “Through these committees, members will review and renew expiring policies and bring forward new initiatives to give direction to our team in Washington.”

NCBA’s seven regions will hold caucuses Friday morning from 7:30 – 9:00 a.m. At these sessions members from the regions will be able to discuss issues of specific concern.

Separate board meetings will be held Saturday morning, July 18, for the Cattlemen’s Beef Board and NCBA Board of Directors, rounding out the week’s meetings and events.

Regional Environmental Stewardship Award Winners Named

Seven families were honored today for their outstanding land management practices during the 2015 Cattle Industry Summer Conference. The Environmental Stewardship Award Program (ESAP) honors the efforts of farmers and ranchers who are dedicated to maintaining and improving their lands to ensure that they are productive for future generations.

ESAP is celebrating its 25th anniversary during the year ahead. Regional and national award recipients serve as role models among their peers in the farming and ranching community, ensuring that the innovative conservation practices are widely adopted by other land managers.

Cattlemen and women are America’s original stewards of the land and the ESAP award honors their ongoing efforts to protect the environment. The program is sponsored by Dow AgroSciences, USDA-NRCS, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Tyson Foods, National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) and the National Cattlemen’s Foundation.

The 2015 regional winners are: Valley View Farms, Harrisonburg, Va.; Bull Hammock Ranch, Fort Pierce, Fla.; Glenn and Bev Rowe, Lorimor, Iowa; 6666 Ranch, Gutherie, Texas; American Fork Ranch, Two Dot, Mont.; Maggie Creek Ranch, Elko, Nev.; and Kopriva Angus, Raymond, S.D.

“The cattlemen and women who we honor here this evening represent the very best traditions of American agriculture’s commitment to protecting and improving the environment for this and future generations,” said NCBA President Philip Ellis. “These men and women understand the importance of protecting our nation’s land, air and water resources. They know first-hand that implementing the practices which improve habitat also benefit the bottom line of individual operations.”

For the past quarter century the Environmental Stewardship Award Program has honored one operation from each of seven regions spanning the United States. Recipients of regional awards are then forwarded for consideration for the National Environmental Stewardship Award which is announced during the Annual Cattle Industry Convention. This year’s national award winner will be announced in San Diego, Calif., on Jan. 27, 2016, in conjunction with the Environmental Stewardship Award Program’s 25th anniversary celebration.

EPA Administrator Addresses Corn Congress

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Gina McCarthy today spoke to the National Corn Growers Association about recent agency actions, including the Renewable Fuel Standard and Waters of the U.S.

More than 300 farmers and staffers were on hand to hear McCarthy's explanation of the RFS and WOTUS decisions, as well as her broader commitment to work with the agricultural industry. McCarthy was invited to address the summer Corn Congress session by NCGA President Chip Bowling, a farmer from Newburg, Maryland.

"Like many farmers, I have concerns with the EPA's recent actions, including the final Waters of the U.S. rule and proposed cuts to the Renewable Fuel Standard. I spoke to Administrator McCarthy to express those concerns," said Bowling. "I invited her to Corn Congress because I wanted farmers to hear from her directly. To her credit, she had the courage to show up and talk to farmers face to face."

"It's important for our two organizations to engage in dialogue and find mutual understanding, and for NCGA to have a seat at the table when important regulatory decisions are being made," Bowling said. "I am encouraged by the Administrator's promise to continue engaging with NCGA. We will hold her to that promise, and we hope to have thoughtful, productive conversations in the future. At the same time, we will continue to use all legal means to protect the rights of our farmers."

New Leaders Conclude 2015 Program with Washington Meetings

A busy week of meetings focused on our nation's capital concluded the 2015 class of the NCGA DuPont New Leaders Program. Thirty-five farmers from 16 states took part in the overall program, which was generously co-sponsored by DuPont and is aimed at preparing participants to be strong advocates and leaders for today's agriculture.

"It was great to meet many of those participating in our events this week, like the action team meetings, our Corn Congress policy sessions, and visits to their members of Congress," said NCGA President Chip Bowling. "These new leaders are the future of our organization, and it was inspiring to see the passion and energy these men and women bring into everything they do. We're also very grateful for DuPont's support in this growing effort."

For the participants, the week began with Monday spent in Wilmington, Del., learning about the history of DuPont and the important work the company is doing specifically in the area of crop protection. In Washington, they attended policy meetings on Tuesday and Wednesday and took part in the "Rally for Rural America" on Capitol Hill, where farmers gathered to protest proposed changes that will weaken the Renewable Fuel Standard. After Hill visits to representatives and senators Wednesday, a Thursday tour of the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History, with a new exhibit on agriculture, was on the agenda.

This is the second plenary session of the program, which kicked off in January in Des Moines, followed by activity at the Commodity Classic convention and trade show and month webinars April through July focused on key issue areas and reports from participants on their interim activities. 2015 marks the second year of this program.

This year's overall program participants were: Brandon Dillard, Alabama; John Lee, Arkansas; Alex Harrell, Georgia; Jason and Kate Danner, Illinois; Colton and Jill Ringel and Christopher and Ashley Hudson, Indiana; Kyle and Jenna Ramsey and Casey and Katie Schleusner, Iowa; Lowell and Krystale Neitzel, Kansas; Michael and Megan Buckman, Kentucky; Jason and Angela McConnachie and Tony and Carrie Kubik, Michigan; Brian and Secely Lehman, Missouri; David and Jana Jobman, Nebraska; Michael Howlett and Carly Metzger, New York; Cody and Ashley Sloan, Oklahoma; Thomas DuRant Jr., South Carolina; Derek Giffin, Tennessee; and Jordan and Ashley Pool and Cole and Kyla Hamilton, Texas.

Vilsack Announces Available Funding and Changes to USDA's Biorefinery and Biobased Product Program

Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack today announced that USDA is accepting applications for funding under a program that supports the production of advanced biofuels, renewable chemicals, and biobased product manufacturing.

"This critical financing will enhance our efforts to build a robust, rural bioeconomy by helping to expand the availability of biobased products and to increase the number of commercial-scale biorefineries in the country," Vilsack said. "In addition to the available funding, I am proud to announce that USDA has significantly improved the biorefinery program to help create lasting job opportunities in rural America."

USDA is making the funding available through the Biorefinery, Renewable Chemical, and Biobased Product Manufacturing Assistance Program. It was formerly known as the Biorefinery Assistance Program.

The new program provides loan guarantees of up to $250 million to construct and retrofit commercial-scale biorefineries and to develop renewable chemicals and biobased product manufacturing facilities. Vilsack and USDA Rural Business-Cooperative Service Administrator Lillian Salerno today hosted a seminar at USDA headquarters to discuss changes to the program and the opportunities available to produce more biobased products.

Two funding cycles are being held. Applications for round one are due October 1. Applications for the second round are due April 1, 2016. For information on how to apply, see page 38432 of the July 6, 2015 Federal Register.

USDA has made significant improvements to the program. Biorefineries are now able to receive funding to produce more renewable chemicals and other biobased products in addition to advanced biofuels.

Also, biobased product manufacturing facilities are eligible to convert renewable chemicals and other biobased outputs into "end-user" products. Further, USDA has streamlined the application process.

USDA released a new report on June 17 that shows America's biobased industry is generating substantial economic activity and creating American jobs. According to the report, the U.S. biobased industry contributed four million jobs and nearly $370 billion to the American economy in 2013 alone.

Dairy Groups Aligned with Congressional Leaders in Disapproving of GI Treaty

The dairy industry today praised leaders of the Senate and House Judiciary committees, the Senate Finance Committee, and the House Ways and Means Committee for expressing “grave disappointment” over recently approved treaty changes that are likely to severely limit the use of many generic food names in export markets.

Among those hurt by the changes are U.S. dairy producers and processors that have relied for decades on well-established cheese names like parmesan and feta. 

In a strongly worded letter to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the eight congressional leaders objected to an expansion of geographical indications protections that will limit the use of certain food names to a specific region or country without sufficient protections for other users of the names. They also objected to a WIPO decision to force those harmed by the changes to help fund them.

“We urge you to take appropriate steps to rectify the funding situation and to implement the agreement in a fair and balanced way that adequately protects the interests of trademark owners and users of generic names,” the committee leaders wrote. “We will continue to monitor closely these developments and other areas of WIPO’s work to ensure that WIPO effectively functions as a global forum for the protection of intellectual property rights.”

The letter also questioned whether the treaty provisions violated other international trade agreements. “We are very concerned that parties to this agreement will implement it in a manner inconsistent with existing international trade obligations, including under the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of International Property Rights,” it said.

Those signing the letter were Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Chuck Grassley (R-IA) and Ranking Member Patrick Leahy (D-VT), House Judiciary Committee Chairman Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) and Ranking Member John Conyers (D-MI),

Senate Finance Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch (R-UT) and Ranking Member Ron Wyden (D-OR), and House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Paul Ryan (R-WI) and Ranking Member Sandy Levin (D-MI).

Leaders of the National Milk Producers Federation, the U.S. Dairy Export Council, and the International Dairy Foods Association all praised the Congressional letter for strongly objecting to WIPO’s actions.

“The deep concern expressed by the United States and many other WIPO members must be taken seriously not only by WIPO but by the World Trade Organization,” said NMPF President and CEO Jim Mulhern. “These eight congressional leaders are to be commended for objecting to an agreement that hamstrings many users of common or generic food names around the world.”

Tom Suber, president of the U.S. Dairy Export Council, said, “The letter correctly notes that WIPO missed an opportunity to develop a consensus agreement and instead approved a one-sided document that ignores the concerns of the United States and many other WIPO members. If this is WIPO’s model for the future, the United States will need to reassess the benefits of belonging to the organization.”

Added Connie Tipton, president and CEO of the International Dairy Foods Association: “WIPO needed to be called out for pushing through an agreement that includes new geographical indications for a wide range of agricultural and non-agricultural products. The congressional letter does that. We hope WIPO sits up and takes notice.”

The World Intellectual Property Organization is a United Nations agency charged with developing a balanced international intellectual property system. It approved the treaty changes at a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland, in May. 

AGree Raises Red Flags in Food and Ag K-12 Education

A paper released today by AGree describes a disjointed and ineffective system of K-12 food and ag education in the U.S. and identifies needed reform.

The paper, Food and Agricultural Education in the United States, authored by Stephanie Mercier, former Chief Economist of the U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee and currently with the Farm Journal Foundation, is the most comprehensive summary to date of the current state of play in K-12 food and agriculture education, its evolution, and ideas that could help to focus and modernize instruction.

“Americans are increasingly interested in where their food comes from, yet are also more disconnected from agriculture than ever before. Agriculture literacy is critical; agriculture, food, and nutrition topics should be embedded in how we teach science and technology,” said Deborah Atwood, executive director of AGree. “Our current system is struggling to prepare the next generation for success.”

The paper outlines five recommendations to strengthen food and ag education, laying the foundation for the U.S. food and ag sector to meet the challenges facing the global food and ag system in the 21st century. 

“We need to step up our game when it comes to food and ag education in both rural and urban America, or we will be woefully unprepared to compete in the global marketplace, which is now vital to U.S. agriculture,” said Dan Glickman, AGree Co-Chair and former U.S. Secretary of Agriculture.

Emmy Simmons, AGree Co-Chair and former Assistant Administrator for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade for the U.S. Agency for International Development, said, “Our education system must respond to the growing interest of the younger generation regarding food and agriculture and prepare them to make a difference in food and ag related fields – whether that means working to address the impacts of climate change, improve public health, or strengthen livelihoods in developing countries.”

Jim Moseley, AGree Co-Chair and former Deputy Secretary of Agriculture, said, “So much is required of producers today – skills in agronomy, natural resource management, information technology, and business. I’m confident that young people are up to the challenge, but there is much more we can do to prepare the next generation of farmers and ranchers.”

Kathleen Merrigan, AGree Co-Chair and Executive Director of Sustainability at George Washington University, who also served previously as Deputy Secretary of Agriculture, calls food and ag education critically important, “Our curricular offerings are disparate and uncoordinated. It’s time to identify the best instructional materials and facilitate their systematic adoption nationwide.”

The paper offers five ideas to improve food and ag education. First, it recommends creating a system that assesses and/or ranks the effectiveness of available curricula in food and ag education. While applauding renewed interest in attracting young people to careers in science and technology, known as STEM disciplines, the paper also suggests that U.S. competitiveness would be well-served by linking food and ag education to STEM programs. Third, the paper recommends the establishment of a “Perkins Plus” program that would offer additional funds to programs deemed to be top performers. Under the Perkins Act, state departments of education submit data on student performance, but the formula funding offers little incentive for school districts to be identified as top performers.

The remaining two suggestions relate to future efforts to monitor and evaluate  food and ag education. The paper suggests a national survey be conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service to assess agricultural literacy. The final idea put forth is the establishment of a committee to review progress in the area of food and ag education. There is precedent, including a committee established in 1985 by the National Academies of Science to assess the contributions of ag education to productivity and competitiveness. Separately, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation funded a project in the late 1990’s to reinvent ag education.

Without question, the food and ag sector has changed significantly in recent years. AGree sees great benefit in taking steps to ensure food and ag education keep pace, which is essential to the future competitiveness of the sector. The full paper is available at

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